Pitch Detection Readings – Wikipedia

There are a few ways to implement pitch tracking. Time-Domain, Frequency-Domain, and Spectral/Temporal approaches.

Time-Domain approaches estimate the period of a signal and inverts the value to get a frequency. For simple waveforms, measuring zero-crossings work for this. For more complex waveforms, compare a segment of the waveform to another segment and account for a “trial” period.

Frequency-Domain approaches work better for polyphonic sounds. Utilizes an FFT and a peiodogram to convert a signal to an estimated frequency.

Spectral/Temporal approaches, track pitch in both the Time and Frequency Domains

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